The Repository @ St. Cloud State

Open Access Knowledge and Scholarship

Date of Award


Culminating Project Type

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Special Education: M.S.


Special Education


School of Education

First Advisor

Bradley Kaffar

Second Advisor

Jennifer Christensen

Third Advisor

Semya Hakim

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Keywords and Subject Headings

overrepresentation, disproportionality, minority, special education, referral, assessment, placement, systemic bias, racial disparities, teacher perceptions, student disabilities, and universal screening


The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and research that examines the overrepresentation of African American students enrolled in special education programs and give reasons as to why this overrepresentation continues to occur.



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